Severe congenital stenosis of the entire trachea with absence of the membranous portion caused acute respiratory obstruction in a 4½-year-old boy and required emergency tracheal replacement. The surgical repair consisted of a unique in situ esophageal replacement of the trachea and tracheo-esophageal anastomosis with an internal stent. The replacement worked well for 39 days at which time the patient died suddenly from a plug of mucus in the trachea, which occluded the anastomosis. Further experience with tracheal replacement and use of in situ esophagus for long tracheal strictures appears justified.
Fonkalsrud EW, Sumida S. Tracheal Replacement With Autologous Esophagus for Tracheal Stricture. Arch Surg. 1971;102(2):139-142. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350020049013