Of more than 1,100 Vietnam casualties with vascular injuries seen at Walter Reed General Hospital, representative cases are reviewed because they emphasize the ability of collateral circulation to maintain viability in a limb deprived of its major blood supply. Improvement in collateral circulation over various periods of time are documented by plethysmographic and Doppler techniques.
Levin MPM, Rich LNM, Hutton MJE. Collateral Circulation in Arterial Injuries. Arch Surg. 1971;102(4):392-399. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350040154030