Three or more aorto-coronary vein bypass grafts have been performed in 57 patients. Improved techniques have lowered the mortality to 7% in 1970 primarily due to decreased time required for extracorporeal circulation. The mean total flow of 175 cc/min in these patients represents a most thorough myocardial revascularization.
Flemma RJ, Johnson WD, Lepley D. Triple Aorto-Coronary Vein Bypass as Treatment for Coronary Insufficiency. Arch Surg. 1971;103(1):82-83. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350070108026