A perfusion system and optical device designed for direct observation of the interior of the functioning cardiovascular system have been used to photograph flow patterns within the aorta and its major branches. Turbulence and evidence of intimal trauma have been observed at the orifices of the major arterial branches during systole. Stasis has been seen during diastole in the abdominal aorta and aortic arch. Since these phenomena occur at the same locations that atheromatous plaques are found clinically, it appears that a combination of intimal trauma and turbulence, followed by localized stasis occurring alternately with each heart beat, are significant and are factors which contribute to atheroma formation at these sites.
Rogers WH, Rukskul A, Camishion RC, Padula RT. In Vivo Cinephotographic Analysis of Aortic and Major Arterial Flow Patterns. Arch Surg. 1971;103(1):93-95. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350070119029