Percutaneous myocardial biopsy and ventricular perforation during cardiac catheterization may produce acute cardiac tamponade. Compression of the heart results from hemorrhage and the osmotic attraction of effusion from the intrapericardial dye or blood. Prompt recognition and early surgical intervention is emphasized. Experience with 20 emergency cases shows that anterolateral thoracotomy and pericardial window is a safe and effective method of treatment.
Effler DB, Loop FD, Spampinato N. Iatrogenic Cardiac Tamponade. Arch Surg. 1971;103(2):189-190. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350080105015