In four cases of pancreatitis the etiology could not be determined by any of the accepted diagnostic measures. Only at exploration could associated biliary tract disease be demonstrated. Aspiration of bile during operation for detecting tiny stones was important. Common entrance of pancreatic and bile ducts was demonstrated in all four cases. Prompt treatment of biliary tract disease prevented the recurrence of attacks during follow-up of 18 to 30 months.
Pfefferman R, Luttwak EM. Gallstone Pancreatitis. Arch Surg. 1971;103(4):484-486. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1971.01350100078014