Clinical experience with high calorie intravenous infusion therapy in 51 infants and children, including 35 newborn (19 premature) infants is described. The most common diagnoses were gastroschisis and omphalocele (17), intestinal atresia (9), and complicated esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (7). A major post-operative complication was the primary indication for starting high calorie parenteral therapy in 15 patients. A solution consisting of 20% to 25% glucose, 2% to 5% nitrogen source (hydrolysate or synthetic amino acid solution), minerals, trace elements, and vitamins provided 95 to 105 calories/kg/day in infants and 65 to 90 calories/kg/day in children. It produced positive nitrogen balance and weight gain for long periods in infants with gastrointestinal anomalies and children with catastrophic diseases of all types. Clinical sepsis associated with the use of the central venous catheter occurred in six patients.
Asch MJ, Huxtable RF, Hays DM. High Calorie Parenteral Therapy in Infants and Children. Arch Surg. 1972;104(4):434-437. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1972.04180040048008