The clinical results achieved with 91 patients who underwent multiple valve replacement showed that early hospital mortality was 12%. Triple valve replacement was associated with the highest mortality (25%), followed by mitral and tricuspid valve replacement (17%). Late mortality was 11%. Mitral and tricuspid valve replacement had the highest late mortality (29%). Congestive heart failure or low cardiac output was the highest single cause of early and late mortality (nine patients or 9%). Cerebral thromboembolic complications occurred in nine patients; four proved to be fatal. In addition, one patient died of a gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage due to profound hypoprothrombinemia. Long-term results indicated highly satisfactory rehabilitations in over 95% of those patients surviving for follow-up. The long-term results in multiple valve replacement now approach those already seen in single valve replacement.
Midell AI, DeBoer A. Multiple Valve ReplacementAn Analysis of Early and Late Results. Arch Surg. 1972;104(4):471-476. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1972.04180040085015