Pathologic rupture of the spleen, two in infectious mononucleosis and one in acute granulocytic leukemia, occurred in three patients and spontaneous rupture of the spleen in two. It is emphasized that awareness of pathologic rupture of the spleen as a rare but important complication in patients with infectious mononucleosis and leukemia should enhance early diagnosis resulting in appropriate surgical intervention and survival. It is also suggested that the term "spontaneous" be replaced by "pathologic" in rupture of the spleen in those conditions in which the spleen is diseased. The term "spontaneous" rupture may be applied to nontraumatic rupture of the spleen without known cause.
Hyun BH, Varga CF, Rubin RJ. Spontaneous and Pathologic Rupture of the Spleen. Arch Surg. 1972;104(5):652-657. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1972.04180050028007