The appearance of bladder fistulas many years after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the cervix is a rare occurrence and offers considerable therapeutic difficulties. Their cause, methods of diagnosis, and management are discussed. Closure may be attempted in the small lesions; larger defects, however, are better dealt with by urinary diversion, preferably uretero-ileo-cutaneous anastomosis.
Morales A, Steyn J. Late Development of Vesical Fistulas Following Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Cervix. Arch Surg. 1972;104(6):836-837. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1972.04180060084020