Perforation of the terminal ileum occurred in 163 patients. Although the cause of this acute abdominal catastrophy, still common in Asia and Africa, is not clear, the typical macrophage reaction of typhoid fever was seen in five of eight carefully studied patients. In only one of the five patients, the typhoid organisms grew from a culture. Although the mortality following simple closure was 28%, it was lower than that for resectional treatment.
Chambers CE. Perforation of the Ileum. Arch Surg. 1972;105(4):550-552. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1972.04180100005003