Pure carbon has been used clinically for percutaneous passage at Rancho Los Amigos Hospital. In the first phase, from 1968 to early 1972. over 40 carbon devices were implanted in the skin of volunteer patients and staff to test the potential use of this material for a dry, infection-free skin intrusion. In the second phase, during the past year, 20 functional devices were implanted in patients and volunteers for muscle stimulation and the control of pain. The success of the devices to achieve infection-free skin passage has given us sufficient confidence to propose an extensive clinical trial for biomedical connector systems.
Mooney V, Hartmann DB, McNeal D, Benson J. The Use of Pure Carbon for Permanent Percutaneous Electrical Connector Systems. Arch Surg. 1974;108(2):148-153. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1974.01350260012003