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This 128-page monograph is a remarkable review of an extensive experience of bone grafting procedures for a wide variety of problems. There are 958 cases, 647 treated with autogenous grafts, 275 treated with frozen homogenous bone grafts, plus additional observations on patients treated with heterogenous bone grafts (deep-freeze calf bone).
There were three deaths among the 958 cases, all from massive pulmonary embolism. The infection rate was 0.6%. The overall success rate with union and roentgenographic transformation of the grafts into living bone was 86.6% with autogenous grafts and 87.3% with homogenous grafts.
The manner in which the grafts were used could be divided into three major groups. The first was to fill up cavities in bone; the second alongside a recipient bone as a graft for recent fractures and established pseudarthroses, or to produce arthrodesis in the joints of the appendicular skeleton or fusion of a scoliotic spine in
LOWELL JD. Reconstructive Surgery of the Long Bones With Autogenous and Homogenous Grafts.. Arch Surg. 1974;108(3):383. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1974.01350270113028