A preliminary evaluation of bovine carotid artery heterografts as axillary-axillary arteriovenous fistulas suggests that this graft may be an easily constructed and easily utilized portal for hemodialysis cannulation. At present, this fistula should be reserved for use when all other commonly employed peripheral sites and methods of constructing arteriovenous fistulas have been exhausted.
Manning LG, Mozersky DJ, Murray HM, Hagood CO. Axillary-Axillary Bovine Arteriovenous Fistula for Hemodialysis. Arch Surg. 1975;110(1):114-115. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1975.01360070114019