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Phenomenal advances in scientific achievements and, notably, in medical technology have altered the course of health care substantially during the past two decades. For example, the development of polio vaccine has markedly reduced the number of new cases of polio, the development of cardiopulmonary bypass has made possible the correction of the vast majority of congenital heart defects, and now cancer immunology is providing a very promising approach to the management of human cancer. Nonetheless, concomitant rapid population growth, changes in life style in modern society, the diagnosis of new diseases, and the increasing frequency of other diseases, such as coronary artery occlusion, have counterbalanced the progress of medical technology such that the average life expectancy has not changed substantially during the past 20 years.
In accordance with the rapid proliferation of experimental and clinical research projects in medicine during the past two decades, a large number of new scientific
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