Minor technical errors may jeopardize the patency of femoral-popliteal bypass grafts. In an attempt to detect such errors, intraoperative arteriography has been routinely employed. It allows immediate recognition and correction of the most common abnormal findings: intraluminal debris, intimal dissection, distal thrombosis, arterial spasm, and kinking of the graft.
Liddicoat JE, Bekassy SM, DeBakey ME. Intraoperative Arteriography During Femoral-Popliteal Bypass. Arch Surg. 1975;110(7):839-840. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1975.01360130071015