A false abnormal operative cholangiogram after a common duct exploration is a frustrating event for the operating surgeon. Since most of the "abnormal" operative cholangiograms after common duct exploration are due to air bubbles, many surgeons have abandoned routine operative T-tube cholangiography.
A technique adopted some years ago has been used with great success. The "Custer technique" of T-tube cholangiography (M.D. Custer, MD, oral communication, 1972) is shown in the Figure.
van Heerden JA. A Technique for T-Tube Cholangiography. Arch Surg. 1976;111(1):85. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1976.01360190087018