• Massive gynecomastia can produce severe psychological problems for the patient. The surgical techniques employed for simple gynecomastia are not effective in correcting the displaced nipple and excess skin. Utilizing a dermal pedicle technique, the excess fat and breast tissue have been removed, along with relocation of the nipple. Satisfactory results and acceptable scars have been obtained in four patients.
(Arch Surg 113:199-201, 1978)
Artz S, Lehman JA. Surgical Correction of Massive Gynecomastia. Arch Surg. 1978;113(2):199-201. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1978.01370140089019