• Effective approaches to unique problems of vascular access in renal failure have evolved from a five-year experience with 840 angioaccess procedures. Standard techniques plus innovations have required only 0.62 operations per year per patient with an average access life of 1.6 years. Classical forearm external arteriovenous (AV) cannulas and internal AV fistulas provided vascular access in 392 patients, while 61 required more complex procedures due to failure of primary cannulas and fistulas, inherently small forearm vessels, and iatrogenic vessel loss. Secondary techniques include reverse fistula, vascular graft AV fistulas using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (E-PTFE), and arterioarterial (AA) jump graft. Presently, the new renal failure patient receives a forearm radiocephalic AV fistula; the cannula is restricted to emergency or short-term hemodialysis and may later be converted to a subcutaneous fistula. The reverse fistula is attempted before using E-PTFE grafts. Upper extremity AV and AA loops can then be constructed de novo or from the reverse fistula.
(Arch Surg 114:403-409, 1979)
Giacchino JL, Geis WP, Buckingham JM, Vertuno LL, Bansal VK. Vascular Access: Long-term Results, New Techniques. Arch Surg. 1979;114(4):403-409. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1979.01370280057008