• Dr William Halsted firmly believed that the young physician achieved greater surgical maturity by observing the practice of surgery in countries in addition to his own. To promote this belief, Halsted initiated the concept of exchanging residents between training programs in different lands. This article presents a review of that historic first international exchange of residents. This glimpse into the past is accomplished by presenting previously unpublished letters of Halsted; Hermann Küttner, director of a surgical clinic in Germany; George Heuer, a resident from The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore; and Felix Landois, a resident from Küttner's clinic.
(Arch Surg 1988;123:115-121)
Rutkow IM, Hempel K. An Experiment in Surgical Education—the First International Exchange of ResidentsThe Letters of Halsted, Küttner, Heuer, and Landois. Arch Surg. 1988;123(1):115–121. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1988.01400250125026