• Implantable programmable pump systems for insulin delivery to the peritoneal cavity or for intravenous insulin delivery have been recently developed. Thirty-one pumps were implanted in 25 patients between 1987 and 1991. At this writing, 76% of patients had functioning pumps. Ninety-two percent of pumps were functioning at 1 year; 89% at 2 years; and 50% at 3 years. No life-threatening complications, either surgical or metabolic, developed. However, 18 patients required 23 outpatient procedures for maintenance of pump function or for pump removal. Metabolic improvement was evidenced by mean and standard deviation of blood glucose levels and by glycosylated hemoglobin levels.
(Arch Surg. 1992;127:1032-1037)
Waxman K, Turner D, Nguyen ST, Selam JL, Charles MA. Implantable Programmable Insulin Pumps for the Treatment of Diabetes. Arch Surg. 1992;127(9):1032-1037. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1992.01420090036006