October 1994

Improved Myocardial Function Using Cardiopulmonary Support in Resuscitation for Hemorrhagic Shock

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Surgery, the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, the University of California—Davis Medical Center, Sacramento.

Arch Surg. 1994;129(10):1013-1017. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1994.01420340023005

Objectives:  To clarify the pathophysiologic characteristics of hemorrhagic shock and to assess methods of resuscitation.

Design:  An animal experiment using sheep subjected to hemorrhagic shock and fibrillation to compare various resuscitation techniques.

Setting:  An experimental laboratory setting meant to simulate hemorrhagic shock secondary to trauma.

Study Groups:  Group 1 animals (n=6) were controls that were not subjected to shock and fibrillation. Group 2 animals (n=6) were subjected to shock and fibrillation and were resuscitated with volume replacement. Group 3 animals (n=6) were also subjected to shock and fibrillation but were resuscitated with epinephrine hydrochloride infusion. Group 4 animals (n=6) were subjected to shock and fibrillation but were resuscitated with cardiopulmonary support.

Interventions:  The shock was to a mean arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg for 1 hour followed by 5 minutes of fibrillation. Group 2 animals were resuscitated for 1 hour. Group 3 animals were supported for 6 hours on epinephrine after the shock period. Group 4 animals were supported for 1 hour on cardiopulmonary support, then were observed for another 5 hours. All animals were sedated and intubated, and a median sternotomy was performed. Main Outcomes Measured: Survival, hemodynamic function, lactate production, myocardial blood flow, and water content.

Results:  Group 1 sheep showed no detrimental effects in any of the measured variables. Group 2 sheep could not be resuscitated. Group 3 sheep could be supported with epinephrine but had a 60% depression in left ventricular function and an ultimately high mortality rate (67%) when the infusion of epinephrine was discontinued. Group 4 sheep had a 100% survival rate and only a 20% deterioration in left ventricular function.

Conclusions:  Cardiopulmonary support improves survival and preserves left ventricular function compared with volume resuscitation with or without inotropic support in this model of hemorrhagic shock.(Arch Surg. 1994;129:1013-1017)