July 1996

Long-term Peritoneal Dialysis Before Transplantation and Intra-abdominal Infection After Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplantations

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Surgery (Drs Papalois, Troppmann, Benedetti, Sutherland, and R. W. G. Gruessner) and School of Public Health (Dr A. C. Gruessner), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Arch Surg. 1996;131(7):761-766. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1996.01430190083021

Objective:  To investigate whether long-term peritoneal dialysis before transplantation entails a higher risk than hemodialysis for intra-abdominal infection after bladder-drained simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantations.

Design:  Large single-center case-control study.

Setting:  A large university hospital (referral center).

Patients:  In all, 189 bladder-drained simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantations were done from January 1, 1986, to December 31, 1994: before transplantations were performed, 32 recipients (17%) were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, 71 recipients (38%) were undergoing hemodialysis, and 86 recipients (46) were not undergoing dialysis.

Main Outcome Measures:  The intra-abdominal infection rate after transplantation and the rate of graft loss due to infection.

Results:  Intra-abdominal infections developed in 33 recipients (18%) after transplantation. Graft and patient survival rates were significantly lower for recipients with vs without an infection (P<.001 for both). Both the dialysis mode and dialysis dependence did not affect the infection rate: of the 33 recipients with an infection, 7 (21%) were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, 15 (46%) were undergoing hemodialysis, and 11 (33%) were not undergoing dialysis before transplantation (P=.3). The rate of graft loss due to infection was not significantly different for recipients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis vs hemodialysis (P=.1). However, it was higher for recipients who were undergoing dialysis (peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis) vs those patients who were not undergoing dialysis (P=.04).

Conclusions:  Candidates for simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation should undergo the transplantation preemptively (ie, before they become dependent on dialysis) because the rate of graft loss due to infection was higher for recipients who were underoing dialysis (irrespective of the dialysis mode). If dialysis cannot be avoided, the choice of peritoneal dialysis vs hemodialysis can be individualized, since these dialysis modes do not have significantly different rates of infection or of graft loss due to infection.Arch Surg. 1996;131:761-766