January 1997

Characteristics of Thoracic Duct Lymph in Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

Author Affiliations

From the Intensive Care Unit and Department of Surgery, Hospital Universitario Príncipe de Asturias, Alcalá de Henares (Drs Sánchez-García, Martin-Duce, and Granell); Department of Medicine, University of Alcalá de Henares, Alcalá de Henares (Drs Prieto and Alvarez-Mon); Department of Nephrology, Hospital Gregorio Marañón, (Dr Tejedor); and Department of Microbiology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal (Dr Fernandez-Sánchez), Madrid, Spain.

Arch Surg. 1997;132(1):13-18. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1997.01430250015002

Objective:  To investigate the presence of endotoxin, bacteria, and potential humoral and cellular mediators in thoracic duct lymph and peripheral blood in patients with severe refractory multiple organ dysfunction.

Design:  Convenience sample.

Setting:  General intensive care unit of a university hospital.

Patients:  Two men and 2 women were studied after a mean of 7.25 days (range, 6-9 days) of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The primary injury was thoracic in 1 patient and abdominal in 3 patients.

Intervention:  The thoracic duct was cannulated with a 7F catheter and samples of lymph and peripheral blood were obtained.

Main Outcome Measures:  Simultaneous lymph and serum levels of lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6, and activation markers on T lymphocytes.

Results:  Lipopolysaccharide and cytokine levels were low in lymph and serum, except for a mean lymph-to-serum ratio of 53.4 for interleukin-1β. There was phenotypical evidence of intense polyclonal T-lymphocyte activation in both lymph and peripheral blood with increased lymph-to-peripheral blood ratios. Increased percentages in lymph of CD45RA+CD45RO+ lymphocytes were observed. In 1 patient, Proteus mirabilis grew simultaneously in lymph, pancreatic necrosis fluid, and a central venous catheter tip. All simultaneous blood cultures were negative.

Conclusions:  Our results provide evidence of the participation of the gut-associated lymphatic tissue in the pathogenesis of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, suggesting that T-cell activation and cytokine production occur at the gut level. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend our findings.Arch Surg. 1997;132:13-18