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The history of medical illustration has long been associated with artists of various renown. Beginning with Titian's pupil Joannes Stephanus of Calcar's woodcuts for Andreas Vesalius' (1514-1564) De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem (1543), an illustrator's ability to faithfully depict what the surgeon-author describes is a vital part of a book's educational intent. In 19th century America, some of the great surgical classics were illustrated by master artists. John Collins Warren's (1778-1856) Surgical Observations on Tumors (1837), the country's first treatise on surgical oncology, contained 16 hand-colored plates by the distinguished engraver David Claypoole Johnston (1799-1865), who later became known for his caricatures. In Alfred Post's (1806-1886) Observations on the Cure of Strabismus (1841), Nathaniel Currier (1813-1888) of later Currier and Ives fame, served as lithographer for all 7 plates including this "initial stages of an operation to cure strabismus." Currier provided similar artistic assistance to Augustus Sidney Doane (1808-1852)
RUTKOW IM. MOMENTS IN SURGICAL HISTORY. Arch Surg. 1997;132(6):684. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1997.01430300126028