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Poultsides and colleagues conducted a retrospective review over a 10-year period of patients with uncontrolled upper GI tract hemorrhage who were treated with angiography and embolization. This highly selective group of 57 patients had significant comorbidities: one-quarter had multiple organ system failure; similar percentages had immunocompromise, renal failure, or coagulopathy. Remarkably, some patients were referred to angiography by consultants who chose not to obtain a surgical consultation.
Zenilmani ME. Angiographic Embolization for Gastroduodenal Hemorrhage: Safety, Efficacy, and Predictors of Outcome—Invited Critique. Arch Surg. 2008;143(5):461-462. doi:10.1001/archsurg.143.5.461