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In This Issue of JAMA Surgery
August 2016

Highlights

JAMA Surg. 2016;151(8):693. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.2934
Research

Readmission after total hip replacement is a common event, and the reduction in the number of these readmissions is a goal of the new Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines and the Affordable Care Act. Siracuse and Chamberlain describe a novel nomogram called the Readmission After Total Hip Replacement Risk Scale score that can reliably predict readmission risk for unique patients prior to their index admission in an effort to intervene a priori.

CME

Patients in the United States waiting for kidney transplantation die in increasing numbers owing to the severe kidney shortage, which might be alleviated by compensating living kidney donors. Peters et al determine the willingness of voting US citizens to become living kidney donors, and they ascertain the potential influence of compensation for donation. Most US voters view living kidney donation positively, and most would be motivated toward donor nephrectomy if offered a payment of $50 000.

Invited Commentary

CME

The number of practicing pediatric surgeons has increased rapidly in the past 4 decades, without a significant increase in the incidence of rare diseases specific to the field. Maintenance of competency in the index procedures for these rare diseases is essential to the future of the profession. Abdullah et al retrospectively reviewed 5 years of pediatric surgery certification renewal applications submitted to the Pediatric Surgery Board between 2009 and 2013. An appendectomy was the most commonly performed procedure. In 6 of 10 “rare” pediatric surgery cases, the mean number of procedures was less than 2.

CME

This intergroup, single-arm pilot study by Katz et al was conducted to determine whether quality-controlled, multidisciplinary treatment regimens can be delivered to patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in the context of a cooperative group trial. Patients received modified FOLFIRINOX and chemoradiation prior to pancreatectomy. Fourteen centers accrued patients ahead of schedule, preoperative toxicity did not preclude surgery, and 68% of patients underwent pancreatectomy.

Abstract

Invited Commentary and Author Audio Interview

Clinical Review & Education

This Special Communication by Rosengart et al summarizes the key points raised at the Society of Surgical Chairs mentorship panel sessions in 2014 and 2015 annual meetings of the society. The management challenges and solutions described in these sessions reflect a very different nature of leadership in surgery today compared with that of a generation or two ago. Three key tenets of effective surgery leadership were raised—collaboration and cooperativity, humanized relationships and mentorship, and operational efficiency.

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