[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
Sign In
Individual Sign In
Create an Account
Institutional Sign In
OpenAthens Shibboleth
[Skip to Content Landing]
November 1969

III. Metaraminol and Capillary Flow in the Nonanesthetized and Anesthetized Pig

Author Affiliations

Ann Arbor, Mich

Arch Surg. 1969;99(5):637-640. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1969.01340170089021

This article is only available in the PDF format. Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables.


Although vasopressors have been used extensively in the treatment of hypovolemic shock, convincing evidence of their clinical efficacy is lacking. Many contemporary investigators, recognizing that a deficiency in capillary blood flow is accepted as the basic pathophysiologic defect in shock,1-4 have tried to determine the effect of vasopressors on small vessel flow. However, their efforts have been hindered by the lack of a method for measuring capillary flow. Unfortunately, most related work has dealt with an estimation of capillary flow based on the measurement of large vessel flow in anesthetized animals using operative methods. The hemodynamic variables introduced by anesthesia,5-9 operative manipulation,7 -10 and the frequently resultant hypothermia5,11 and hypovolemia have been overlooked often. Furthermore, these methods fail to differentiate nutritive capillary flow from arteriovenous pathway flow. If we are to evaluate flow changes in the microcirculation, we must use direct methods which eliminate these variables.

Baue, A.E.:  Recent Developments in the Study and Treatment of Shock: Collective Review , Surg Gynec Obstet 127:849-878 ( (Oct) ) 1968.
Clauss, R.H., and Ray, J.F.:  Pharma cologic Assistance to the Failing Circulation: Collective Review , Surg Gynec Obstet 126:611-631 ( (March) ) 1968.
Hamit, H.F.:  Current Trends of Therapy and Research in Shock: Collective Review , Surg Gynec Obstet 120:835-854 ( (April) ) 1965.
Mills, L.C., and Moyer, J.H.: Shock and Hypotension: Pathogenesis and Treatment , New York: Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1965.
Beaconsfield, P., and Messent, D.:  Blood Flow After General Anesthesia in Sympathectomized Limbs , Anesthesiology 16:428-433 ( (May) ) 1955.Article
Greisheimer, E.M.: "The Circulatory Effects of Anesthesia," Handbook of Physiology , Washington, DC: American Physiologic Society, 1965, vol 3, sec 2, pp 2477-2510.
Heilbrunn, A., and Allbritten, F.F.:  Cardiac Output During and Following Surgical Operations , Ann Surg 152:197-210 ( (Aug) ) 1960.Article
Nash, C.B.; Davis, F.; and Woodbury, R.A.:  Cardiovascular Effects of Anesthetic Doses of Pentobarbital Sodium , Amer J Physiol 185:107-112 ( (April) ) 1956.
Price, H.L.:  General Anesthesia and Circulatory Homeostasis , Physiol Rev 40:187-218 ( (April) ) 1960.
Barclay, A.E., and Bentley, F.H.:  The Vascularization of the Human Stomach: A Preliminary Note on the Shunting Effect of Trauma , Gastroenterology 12:177-183 ( (Feb) ) 1949.
Suzuki, M., and Penn, I.:  A Reappraisal of the Microcirculation During General Hypothermia , Surgery 58:1049-1060 ( (Dec) ) 1965.
Olsen, W.R.:  A New Research Technique to Determine Changes in Blood Capillary Flow , Arch Surg 97:831-835 ( (Nov) ) 1968.Article
Malcolm, J.D.:  The Condition of the Blood Vessels During Shock , Lancet 2:573-579 (Aug 26) 1905.
Chambers, R., and Zweifach, B.W.:  Topography and Function of the Mesenteric Capillary Circulation , Amer J Anat 75:173-205 ( (Sept) ) 1944.Article
Corday, E., et al:  Effect of Systemic Blood Pressure and Vasopressor Drugs on Coronary Blood Flow and the Electrocardiogram , Amer J Cardiol 3:626-637 ( (May) ) 1959.Article
Sapirstein, LA.; Sapirstein, E.H.; and Bredemeyer, A.:  Effect of Hemorrhage on the Cardiac Output and Its Distribution in the Rat , Circ Res 8:135-148 ( (Jan) ) 1960.Article
Vowles, K.D.J.; Couves, C.M.; and Howard, J.M.:  Coronary and Peripheral Blood Flow Following Hemorrhagic Shock, Transfusion, and Norepinephrine , Circulation 16:946 ( (Oct) ) 1957.
Dow, R., and Fry, W.J.:  Hemorrhagic Shock; Changes in Renal Blood Flow and Vascular Resistance , Arch Surg 94:190-194 ( (Feb) ) 1967.Article
Mills, L.C., and Moyer, J.H.:  The Effects of Various Catecholamines on Specific Vascular Hemodynamics in Hypotensive and Normotensive Subjects , Amer J Cardiol 5:652-659 (May) 1960.Article
Mills, L.C.; Moyer, J.H.; and Handley, C.A.:  Effects of Various Sympathicomimetic Drugs on Renal Hemodynamics in Normotensive and Hypotensive Dogs , Amer J Physiol 198:1279-1283 ( (June) ) 1960.
Catchpole, B.N.; Hackel, D.B.; and Simeone, F.A.:  Coronary and Peripheral Blood Flow in Experimental Hemorrhagic Hypotension Treated With L-Nor-Epinephrine , Ann Surg 142:372-381 ( (Sept) ) 1955.Article
Sarnoff, S.J., et al:  Insufficient Coronary Flow and Myocardial Failure as a Complicating Factor in Late Hemorrhagic Shock , Amer J Physiol 176:439-444 ( (March) ) 1954.
West, J.W.; Guzman, S.V.; and Bellet, S.:  Comparative Cardiac Effects of Various Sympathomimetic Amines , Circulation 16:950 ( (Nov) ) 1957.
Close, A.S., et al:  The Effect of Norepinephrine on Survival in Experimental Acute Hemorrhagic Hypotension , Surg Forum 8:22-26 ( (Oct) ) 1957.
Drucker, W.R.; Kingsbury, B.; and Graham, L.:  Metabolic Effect of Vasopressors in Hemorrhagic Shock , Surg Forum 13:16-18 ( (Oct) ) 1962.
Finnerty, F.A., Jr.; Buchholz, J.H.; and Guillaudeu, R.L.:  The Blood Volumes and Plasma Protein During Levarterenol-Induced Hypertension , J Clin Invest 37:425-429 ( (March) ) 1958.Article
Jackson, A.J., and Webb, W.R.:  Effects of Norepinephrine on Differential Blood Flow in Graded Hemorrhage , Surg Forum 13:14-15 ( (Oct) ) 1962.
Lister, J., et al:  Transcapillary Refilling After Hemorrhage in Normal Man: Basal Rates and Volumes; Effect of Norepinephrine , Ann Surg 158:698-712 ( (Oct) ) 1963.Article
Longerbeam, J.K.; Lillehei, R.C.; and Scott, W.R.:  The Nature of Irreversible Shock: A Hemodynamic Study , Surg Forum 13:1-3 ( (Oct) ) 1962.
Morris, R.E., Jr.; Graff, T.D.; and Robinson, P.:  Metabolic Effects of Vasopressor Agents , Bull NY Acad Med 42:1007-1022 ( (Nov) ) 1966.
Schmutzer, K.J.; Raschke, E.; and Maloney, J.V., Jr.:  Intravenous L-Norepinephrine as a Cause of Reduced Plasma Volume , Surgery 50:452-457 ( (Sept) ) 1961.
Moore, F.D.:  Annual Discourse: The Effects of Hemorrhage on Body Composition , New Eng J Med 273:567-577 ( (Sept 9) ) 1965.Article
Rosenberg, J.C., et al:  Studies on Hemorrhagic and Endotoxin Shock in Relation to Vasomotor Changes and Endogenous Circulating Epinephrine, Norepinephrine and Serotonin , Ann Surg 154:611-628 ( (Oct) ) 1961.Article
Walker, W.F., et al:  Adrenal Medullary Secretion in Hemorrhagic Shock , Amer J Physiol 197:773-780 ( (Oct) ) 1959.
Deterling, R.A., Jr., et al:  The Cardiovascular Effects of Continuous Intravenous Infusion of Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, and Neosynephrine During Cyclopropane and Ether Anesthesia in the Dog , Anesthesiology 15:11-18 ( (Jan) ) 1954.Article
Eckstein, J.W.; Hamilton, W.K.; and McCammond, J.M.:  The Effect of Thiopental on Peripheral Venous Tone , Anesthesiology 22:525-528 ( (July) -Aug) 1961.Article
Webb, R.C., and Nicoll, P.A.:  The Bat Wing as a Subject for Studies in Homeostasis of Capillary Beds , Anat Rec 120:253-263 ( (Sept) ) 1954.Article
Zweifach, B.W.:  Direct Observation of the Mesenteric Circulation in Experimental Animals , Anat Rec 120:277-291 ( (Sept) ) 1954.Article
Price, H.L., et al:  Sympathoadrenal Responses to General Anesthesia in Man and Their Relation to Hemodynamics , Anesthesiology 20:563-575 ( (Sept) -Oct) 1959.Article
Vowles, K.D.J., and Howard, J.M.:  Myocardial and Cerebral Infarctions as Postoperative Complications , Brit Med J 1:1096-1099 ( (May 10) ) 1958.Article