Six patients were treated at the University of California Hospital, Los Angeles, for traumatic tracheal and bronchial injuries. One patient had severed the left main stem bronchus, and five had injured the cervical trachea. Subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema were the most common signs of chest injuries, and dyspnea was the most common symptom. Treatment consisted of suture repair of the disruption of the bronchus and two tracheal tears, and tracheostomy was necessary only in three additional tracheal injuries. All patients survived the operations and have remained well from one to seven years since injury.
Mazzei EA, Mulder DG. Closed-Chest Injuries to the Trachea and Bronchus. Arch Surg. 1970;100(6):677-680. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1970.01340240045009