Iatrogenic perforation of the esophagus was diagnosed in nine patients; seven were operated on and all survived, even when operation was delayed for as long as 48 to 72 hours. Both patients who were treated conservatively died, despite the fact that treatment was commenced immediately after the perforation had occurred. We believe that surgical treatment is indicated in all cases of esophageal perforation and that conservative management should be employed only in those patients whose general condition does not permit operation.
Wolloch Y, Zer M, Dintsman M. Iatrogenic Perforations of the EsophagusTherapeutic Considerations. Arch Surg. 1974;108(3):357-360. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1974.01350270087015