The fate of autogenous vein grafts inserted into the abdominal aorta and peripheral arteries was studied in experimentally induced canine atherosclerosis. The grafts in the abdominal aorta developed atherosclerotic changes, became dilated, and, in most instances, were surrounded by a moderate to severe fibrous reaction. Microscopically, all three coats of the vein were involved in variable degrees with characteristic morphologic and lipid degenerative changes. The grafts implanted by end-to-side anastomosis into peripheral arteries (femoral, carotid) displayed minimal or no atheromatous changes while those implanted by end-to-end anastomosis become stenosed or occluded by organized thrombi. Among the factors that may contribute to venous atherogenesis are the morphologic changes, turbulence, increased pressure, and filtration factors. When veins are placed artificially in the arterial tree, other factors than the tissue itself appear responsible for the morphologic and lipid degenerative changes.
Haimovici H, Maier N. Autogenous Vein Grafts in Experimental Canine AtherosclerosisTheir Fate in the Abdominal Aorta and Peripheral Arteries. Arch Surg. 1974;109(1):95-102. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1974.01360010073018