[Skip to Content]
Sign In
Individual Sign In
Create an Account
Institutional Sign In
OpenAthens Shibboleth
[Skip to Content Landing]
Article
April 1987

Surgical Disease in East AfricaPresidential Address

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, and the New England Deaconess Hospital, Boston.

Arch Surg. 1987;122(4):397-402. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1987.01400160023001
Abstract

The provision of health care to any organized group of humans is intimately tied to the winds of change that occur in the political and economic arena of that particular group.

Africa is no exception to this broad generalization. During the past quarter century, independence, although not necessarily liberty, has come to most of the nations of this vast continent that was, until 100 years ago, except for the coastal areas, aptly described by the term darkest Africa because of the lack of knowledge in western European countries of the history and culture of its peoples.

Time and space preclude adequate review of the complex but fascinating history of the continent and both perspective and detail will be limited to the area usually referred to as East Africa.

This geographic entity encompasses the countries of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania and includes the magnificent Lake Victoria, from which emerges the headwaters

References
1.
Burkitt D:  A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children . Br Med J 1958;46:218-224.
2.
Burkitt DP:  A tumor safari in East and Central Africa . Br J Cancer 1962;16:379-386.Article
3.
Ziegler JL:  Burkitt's lymphoma . N Engl J Med 1981;305:735-745.Article
4.
Burkitt DP:  Determining the climatic limitations of a children's cancer common in Africa . Br Med J 1962;2:1019-1023.Article
5.
Burkitt DP:  A children's cancer development dependent on climatic factors . Nature 1962;194:232-234.Article
6.
Haddow AJ:  Climatic parameters of Burkitt's lymphoma . East Afr Med J 1963;40:429-437.
7.
Epstein MA, Achong BC, Barr YM:  Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma . Lancet 1964;1:702-703.Article
8.
Evans AS, Niederman JC, McCollun JW:  Seroepidemiologic studies of infectious mononucleosis with Epstein-Barr virus . N Engl J Med 1968;279: 1121-1127.Article
9.
Henie G, Henle W, Clifford P, et al:  Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus in Burkitt's lymphoma and control groups . JNCI 1969;43:1147-1157.
10.
Lindahl T, Klein G, Reedman BM, et al:  Relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA and the EBV determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) in Burkitt's lymphoma biopsies and other lymphoproliferative malignancies . Int J Cancer 1974;13:764-772.Article
11.
Olweny CLM, Atine I, Kaddu-Mukasa A, et al:  Epstein-Barr virus genome studies in Burkitt's lymphomas in Uganda . JNCI 1977;58:1191-1196.
12.
Burkitt DP:  Long-term remissions following one- and two-dose chemotherapy for African lymphoma . Cancer 1967;20:756-759.Article
13.
Ziegler JL, Carbone PP, Berard CW, et al:  Burkitt's tumor in the United States: Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis , in Clifford P, Linsell CA, Timms GL (eds): Cancer in Africa . Nairobi, Kenya, East African Publishing House, 1968, pp 239-250.
14.
Kaposi M:  Idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin . Arch Derm Syph 1872;4:265.Article
15.
Taylor JF, Templeton AC, Vogel CL, et al:  Kaposi's sarcoma in Uganda: A clinico-pathological study . Int J Cancer 1971;8:122-135.Article
16.
Williams EH, Williams PH.  Simulium and Kaposi's sarcoma . East Afr Med J 1966;43:208-214.
17.
Rogoff MG:  Kaposi's sarcoma: Age, sex and tribal incidence in Kenya , in Clifford P, Linsell CA, Timms GL (eds): Cancer in Africa . Nairobi, Kenya, East African Publishing House, 1968, pp 445-448.
18.
Levy JA, Ziegler JL:  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is an opportunistic infection and Kaposi's sarcoma results from secondary immune stimulation . Lancet 1983;2:78-81.Article
19.
Curran JW:  AIDS: Two years later . N Engl J Med 1983;309:609-610.Article
20.
Alpert ME, Hutt MSR, Wogan GN, et al:  Association between aflatoxin content of food and hepatoma frequency in Uganda . Cancer 1971;28:253-260.Article
21.
Wogan GN, Newberne PM:  Dose and response characteristics of aflatoxin B in carcinogenesis in the rat . Cancer Res 1967;27:2370-2374.
22.
 Carnaghan RBA: Hepatic tumors in ducks fed a low level of toxic groundnut meal . Nature 1965;208:301-311.
23.
Ashley LM, Halver JE, Gardner WK Jr, et al:  Crystalline aflatoxins cause trout hepatomas . Fed Proc 1965;24:627-630.
24.
Steiner PE:  Cancer of the liver and cirrhosis in Trans-Saharan Africa and the USA . Cancer 1960;13:1085-1089.Article
25.
Brechot C, Nalpas B, Courouce AM, et al:  Evidence that hepatitis B virus has a role in liver-cell carcinoma in alcoholic liver disease . N Engl J Med 1982;306:1384-1387.Article
26.
Wood M:  Epitheliomata , in Clifford P, Linsell CA, Timms GL (eds): Cancer in Africa , Nairobi, Kenya, East African Publishing House, 1968, pp 425-426.
27.
Goldin BR, Adlercreutz H, Gorbach SL, et al:  Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women . N Engl J Med 1982;307:1542-1546.Article
28.
Hutt MSR, Burkitt DP:  Geographical distribution of cancer in East Africa: A new clinicopathological approach . Br Med J 1965;2:719-722.Article
29.
McDermott WV Jr, Adams RD:  Episodic stupor associated with Eck fistula in human with particular reference to metabolism of ammonia . J Clin Invest 1954;1:1-9.Article
30.
Hubbard TB:  Carcinoma of the head of the pancreas: Resection of the portal vein and portacaval shunt . Ann Surg 1958;147:935-944.
31.
Warren WD, Rudman D, Millikan W, et al:  The metabolic basis of portasystemic encephalopathy and the effect of selective vs. nonselective shunts . Ann Surg 1958;147:935-943.
32.
DaSilva LC, Strauss E, Gayotto LC, et al:  A randomized trial for the study of elective surgical treatment of portal hypertension in mansonic schistosomiasis . Ann Surg 1986;204:148-153.Article
×