[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
Sign In
Individual Sign In
Create an Account
Institutional Sign In
OpenAthens Shibboleth
[Skip to Content Landing]
January 1991

Studies of the Route, Magnitude, and Time Course of Bacterial Translocation in a Model of Systemic Inflammation

Author Affiliations

From the Departments of Surgery (Drs Mainous and Deitch), Physiology and Biophysics (Dr Tso), and Microbiology and Immunology (Dr Berg), Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport, La.

Arch Surg. 1991;126(1):33-37. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1991.01410250037005

• Bacteria have been documented to translocate from the gut to systemic organs, yet the exact route by which they translocate remains unclear. To determine the route of bacterial translocation, different dosages of zymosan were used to activate complement and cause systemic inflammation. At a zymosan dose of 0.1 mg/g, bacteria translocated only to the mesenteric lymph node complex, whereas at a dose of 0.5 mg/g the bacteria translocated systematically. In rats receiving 0.5-mg/g doses of zymosan, the bacteria appeared to reach systemic organs via the portal blood rather than via the mesenteric lymph, as bacteria were present in 87% of portal blood samples but only 25% of lymph samples. The number of bacteria exiting the portal vein was 11 500 times greater than the number exiting via the lymph. Thus, both the route and extent of bacterial translocation varies based on the magnitude of the inflammatory insult, with the portal blood being the major route of bacterial translocation to systemic organs.

(Arch Surg. 1991;126:33-37)

Berg RD, Garlington AW.  Translocation of certain indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph node and other organs in a gnotobiotic mouse model . Infect Immun . 1979;23:403-411.
Maejima K, Deitch EA, Berg RD.  Promotion by burn stress of the translocation of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of mice . Arch Surg . 1984;119:166-172.Article
Baker JW, Deitch EA, Li M, Berg RD, Specian RD.  Hemorrhagic shock induces bacterial translocation from the gut . J Trauma . 1988;28:896-906.Article
Morehouse JL, Specian RD, Stewart JJ, Berg RD.  Promotion of translocation of indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract of mice by oral ricinoleic acid . Gastroenterology . 1986;91:673-682.
Alverdy JC, Aoys E, Moss GS.  Total parenteral nutrition promotes bacterial translocation from the gut . Surgery . 1988;104:185-190.
Deitch EA, Berg RD, Specian RD.  Endotoxin promotes the translocation of bacteria from the gut . Arch Surg . 1987;122:185-190.Article
Deitch EA, Winterton J, Berg RD.  Deficiency of T-cell mediated immunity promotes bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract after thermal injury . Arch Surg . 1986;121:97-101.Article
Berg RD.  Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tracts of mice receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapeutic agents . Curr Microbiol . 1983;8:285-292.Article
Deitch EA, Maejima K, Berg RD.  Effect of oral antibiotics and bacterial overgrowth on the translocation of the gastrointestinal tract microflora in burned rats . J Trauma . 1985;25:385-392.Article
Bodey GP.  Antibiotic prophylaxis in cancer patients: regimens of oral, nonabsorbable antibiotics for prevention of infection during induction of remission . Rev Infect Dis . 1981;3:S259-S268.Article
Jarrett F, Balish L, Moylan JA, Ellerbe S.  Clinical experience with prophylactic bowel suppression in burn patients . Surgery . 1978;83:523-527.
Woodruff RW, O'Carroll DE, Koizumic S, Fine J.  Role of the intestinal flora in major trauma . J Infect Dis . 1973;128:S290-S294.Article
Border JR, Hassett J, LaDuca J, et al.  The gut origin septic states in blunt multiple trauma (ISS = 40) in the ICU . Ann Surg . 1987;206:427-448.Article
Goris RJA, Boekhorst TPA, Nuytinck JKS, Gimbrere JSF.  Multiple organ failure: generalized autodestructive inflammation? Arch Surg . 1985;120:1109-1115.Article
Nuytinck JKS, Goris RJA, Redl H, Schlag G, vanMunster PJJ.  Posttraumatic complications and inflammatory mediators . Arch Surg . 1986; 121:886-890.Article
Goris RJA, Boekholtz WKF, vanBebber IPT, Nuytinck JKS, Schillings PHM. Multiple organ failure and sepsis without bacteria. Arch Surg . 1986;121:897-901.Article
Schirmer WJ, Schirmer JM, Naff GB, Fry DE.  Systemic complement activation produces hemodynamic changes characteristic of sepsis . Arch Surg . 1988;123:316-321.Article
Czop JK.  Phagocytosis of particulate activators of the alternative complement pathway . Adv Immunol . 1986;38:361-398.
Lindema J, Burkhardt H, Dwenger A.  Mechanisms of non-opsonized zymosan-induced and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in whole blood and isolated phagocytes . J Clin Chem Clin Biochem . 1987;25:765-778.
Schirmer WJ, Schirmer JM, Naff GB, Fry DE.  Visceral perfusion abnormalities following complement activation . Am Surg . 1988;54:687-692.
Granger DN.  Intestinal microcirculation and transmucosal fluid transport . Am J Physiol . 1981;240:G343-G349.
Wells CL, Maddaus MA, Erlandsen SL, Simmons RL.  Evidence for the phagocytic transport of intestinal particles in dogs and rats . Infect Immun . 1988;56:278-282.
Wells CL, Maddaus MA, Simmons RL.  Role of the macrophage in the translocation of intestinal bacteria . Arch Surg . 1987;122:48-53.Article
Wells CL, Maddaus MA, Simmons RL.  Proposed mechanisms for the translocation of intestinal bacteria . Rev Infect Dis . 1988;10:958-979.Article
Schirmer WJ, Schirmer JM, Naff GB, Fry DE.  Alternative pathway complement activation induces reductions in effective hepatic blood flow . Curr Surg . 1987;44:304-307.
Schenck GW Jr, McDonald JC, McDonald K, Drapanas T.  Direct measurement of hepatic blood flow in surgical patients with related observations on hepatic flow dynamics in experimental animals . Ann Surg . 1962;156:463-471.Article
Reynolds TB, Redeker AG.  Hepatic hemodynamics and portal hypertension . Prog Liver Dis . 1965;2:457-473.
Dencker H, Kamme C, Norryd C, Mardh P-A, Tylen U.  Examination for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in human portal blood collected by transumbilical catheterization . Scand J Gastroenterol . 1974;9:367-369.
Taylor FN.  Blood culture studies of the portal vein . Arch Surg . 1956;72:889-892.Article
Orloff MJ, Peskin GW, Ellis HL.  A bacteriologic study of human portal blood . Ann Surg . 1958;148:738-746.Article
Jacob AI, Goldberg PK, Bloom N, Degenshein GA, Kozinn PJ.  Endotoxin and bacteria in portal blood . Gastroenterology . 1977;72:1268-1270.
Coblentz A, Kelly KH, Fitzpatrick L, Bierman HR.  Microbiologic studies of the portal and hepatic venous blood in man . Am J Med Sci . 1954;228:298-300.Article
Triger DR, Boyer TD, Levin J.  Portal and systemic bacteremia and endotoxemia in liver disease . Gut . 1978;19:935-939.Article
McCuskey RS, McCuskey PA, Urbaschek R, Urbaschek B.  Kupffer cell function in host defense . Rev Infect Dis . 1987;9( (suppl 15) ):S616-S619.Article
Holper K, Olcay I, Kitahama A, et al.  Effect of ischemia on hepatic parenchymal and reticuloendothelial function in the baboon . Surgery . 1974;76:423-432.
Dieter P, Altin JG, Bygrave FL.  Possible involvement of prostaglandins in vasoconstriction induced by zymosan and arachidonic acid in the perfused rat liver . FEBS Lett . 1987;213:174-178.Article
Machiedo GW, Hurd T, Rush BF Jr, Dikdan G, McGee J, Lysz T.  Temporal relationship of hepatocellular dysfunction and ischemia in sepsis . Arch Surg . 1988;123:424-427.Article
Townsend MC, Hampton WW, Haybron DM, Schirmer WJ, Fry DE.  Effective organ blood flow and bioenergy status in murine peritonitis . Surgery . 1986;100:205-212.
Hampton WW, Townsend MC, Haybron DM, Schirmer WJ, Fry DE.  Effective hepatic blood flow and hepatic bioenergy status in murine peritonitis . J Surg Res . 1987;42:33-38.Article
Sato T, Tanika J, Kono Y, Jones RT, Crowley A, Trump BF.  Hepatic cellular injury following lethal Escherichia coli bacteremia in rats . Lab Invest . 1982;47:304-310.
Asher EF, Rowe RL, Garrison RN, Fry DE.  Experimental bacteremia and hepatic nutrient blood flow . Circ Shock . 1986;20:43-49.