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  • JAMA October 17, 2017

    Figure: Associations of Insulin-Metformin Combination Therapy vs Insulin Monotherapy With Change in Hemoglobin A1c

    The mean differences are between baseline and follow-up for the insulin-metformin combination therapy group vs the insulin monotherapy group. The size of the data markers indicates the weight of the study; NR, not reported.aEpisodes per participant per month.
  • Combination Therapy Shrinks Melanoma Brain Metastases

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    JAMA. 2017; 318(4):323-323. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.9525
  • JAMA February 9, 2016

    Figure 2: Studies Assessing Short-term Mortality for β-Lactam Plus Macrolide Combination Therapy or Respiratory Fluoroquinolone Monotherapy vs β-Lactam Monotherapy for Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Some values were estimated based on available data. NR indicates not reported; OR, odds ratio.aUnless otherwise indicated.bHazard ratio not adjusted OR.cData collected in 1993.dData collected in 1995.eData collected in 1997.fCalculated using available data and is unadjusted.gData are for subgroup with radiographically confirmed pneumonia.
  • Antibiotic Therapy for Adults Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review

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    JAMA. 2016; 315(6):593-602. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0115

    This systematic review characterizes associations between 3 aspects of antibiotic therapy (optimal time to antibiotic initiation, initial antibiotic selection, and criteria for the transition from intravenous to oral therapy) and short-term mortality in adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia.

  • Effects of Nicotine Patch vs Varenicline vs Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy on Smoking Cessation at 26 Weeks: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2016; 315(4):371-379. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.19284

    This randomized trial compares the efficacy of varenicline, nicotine patch, and combination nicotine replacement therapy (patch plus lozenges) on smoking abstinence at 26 weeks among adults interested in quitting smoking.

  • Endovascular Revascularization and Supervised Exercise for Peripheral Artery Disease and Intermittent Claudication: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2015; 314(18):1936-1944. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.14851

    This randomized trial compares the effects of endovascular revascularization and supervised exercise vs supervised exercise alone on walking distance and quality of life among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication.

  • JAMA November 3, 2015

    Figure 4: Subgroup and Sensitivity Analyses for Favorable Functional Outcome Reduced Disability at 90 Days

    Favorable functional outcome was defined as reduced disability at 90 days. Odds ratios and corresponding confidence intervals among patient subgroups from individual trials were pooled and interactions were evaluated by random-effects meta-analyses. aThe National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) evaluates the clinical severity of stroke and ranges from 0 to 42, with higher values indicating more severe neurological deficit. An NIHSS score of 20 points was used as a cut-off because scores higher than 20 are considered severe impairment and correspond to a significantly greater risk of intracranial hemorrhage and unfavorable outcome.bThe Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) is a 10-point topographic score evaluating the presence and severity of early ischemic change on standard computed tomographic (CT) scan in patients with early acute ischemic stroke of the anterior circulation, with a normal CT scan receiving 10 points and a score of 0 indicating diffuse involvement throughout the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. An ASPECTS of 7 points was used as a cutoff because scores higher than 7 are associated with poorer functional outcomes and greater risk of intracranial hemorrhage.cConfirmed arterial occlusion refers to use of CT angiography or magnetic resonance angiograph (MRA) to confirm arterial occlusion prior to treatment. dProximal MCA occlusion refers to occlusion of the M1 MCA or 2 or more M2 MCA segments; data on outcomes of M1 vs M2 MCA occlusion were not available. eIntravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) refers to use of combination therapy (endovascular intervention plus intravenous tPA).fMethod of thrombectomy was separated based on high (>80%) vs low (<20%) rate of use of retrievable stent devices.
  • Fixed-Dose Combination Therapy With Daclatasvir, Asunaprevir, and Beclabuvir for Noncirrhotic Patients With HCV Genotype 1 Infection

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    JAMA. 2015; 313(17):1728-1735. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.3860

    This cohort study reports the effects of an oral fixed-dose regimen of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir on sustained virologic response in patients without cirrhosis who had chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

  • JAMA April 28, 2015

    Figure 4: Correlation Between Odds Ratios (ORs) for Susceptibility to Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and ORs for Treatment Response in BRAGGSS Cohort

    Treatment response correlates with susceptibility in this Figure. Horizontal and vertical error bars indicate 95% CIs. The orange line was fitted by linear regression. Haplotype groups are defined in Figure 3. The OR for a haplotype group for the association with RA susceptibility has been calculated as the weighted average of the OR of the individual haplotypes belonging to the group; haplotype frequency was used as the weight. The OR for the association with treatment response has been calculated using a multivariable ordinal logistic regression of European League Against Rheumatism response on the haplotype groups. Every patient in the Biologics in Rheumatoid Arthritis Genetics and Genomics Study Syndicate (BRAGGSS) cohort carries either 0, 1, or 2 copies of a haplotype classified as a group 1, 2, 3, or 4 haplotype. The multivariable ordinal logistic regression includes all 4 haplotype groups in the same model and the following markers of treatment response as covariates: sex, concurrent treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, Disease Activity Score based on 28 joint counts, and Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index score at treatment initiation (baseline). The Disease Activity Score ranges from 0 to 10; a higher score indicates a higher level of disease activity. Health Assessment Questionnaire measures functional disability and ranges from 0 to 3; a higher score indicates a higher level of disability.
  • Combination Long-Acting β-Agonists and Inhaled Corticosteroids Compared With Long-Acting β-Agonists Alone in Older Adults With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    JAMA. 2014; 312(11):1114-1121. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.11432

    Gershon and coauthors conducted a population-based, longitudinal cohort study to estimate the long-term benefits of combination long-acting β-agonists (LABAs) and inhaled corticosteroids compared with LABAs alone among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Calverley comments in an Editorial.

  • Sample Size Calculation for a Hypothesis Test

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    JAMA. 2014; 312(2):180-181. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.8295
  • Combination Varenicline and Bupropion SR for Tobacco-Dependence Treatment in Cigarette Smokers: A Randomized Trial

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    JAMA. 2014; 311(2):155-163. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.283185

    Ebberts and colleagues compare the efficacy and safety of varenicline and sustained-release bupropion vs varenicline alone in 506 adult cigarette smokers in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, 12-week clinical trial (52-week follow-up) at 3 centers from October 2009 through April 2013.

  • JAMA September 11, 2013

    Figure 1: Probability of 6-Month Survival According to Treatment Allocation

    There was no difference in 6-month survival between the pentoxifylline+prednisolone and placebo+prednisolone groups according to intention-to-treat analysis (69.9% [95% CI, 62.1%-77.7%] vs 69.2% [95% CI, 61.4%-76.9%], P = .91). Comparison of hazard ratio using the Cox proportional hazards regression model was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.63-1.51; P = .91). The combination therapy lasted 28 days.
  • JAMA September 11, 2013

    Figure 3: Cumulative Incidence of Hepatorenal Syndrome in the Pentoxifylline+Prednisolone and Placebo+Prednisolone Groups Estimated by the Kalbfleisch and Prentice Method

    At the 6-month follow-up, the difference in cumulative risk of hepatorenal syndrome was not observed in patients treated with a combination of pentoxifylline and prednisolone (8.4% [95% CI, 4.8%-14.8%] in the pentoxifylline+prednisolone group vs 15.3% [95% CI, 10.3%-22.7%] in the placebo+prednisolone group, corresponding with 11 vs 21 occurrences, respectively; P = .07). Comparison of cumulative incidence was performed by using the Gray test. The combination therapy lasted 28 days.
  • JAMA September 11, 2013

    Figure 2: Probability of 6-Month Survival According to the Pattern of Response to Treatment in the Pentoxifylline+Prednisolone and Placebo+Prednisolone Groups

    Pattern of response was based on previously proposed cutoffs that classified patients as complete (Lille score of ≤0.16), partial (0.16combination therapy lasted 28 days.
  • Combination Therapy to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: Slow Progress

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    JAMA. 2013; 309(15):1595-1596. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.3180
  • Consumer Group Asks FDA to Warn Patients About Hypertension Combination Therapy

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    JAMA. 2012; 308(20):2070-2071. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.25362
  • Effect of Empirical Treatment With Moxifloxacin and Meropenem vs Meropenem on Sepsis-Related Organ Dysfunction in Patients With Severe Sepsis: A Randomized Trial

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    JAMA. 2012; 307(22):2390-2399. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.5833
    Dr Brunkhorst and coauthors for the German Study Group Competence Network Sepsis report on the effect of empirical treatment with moxifloxacin and meropenem vs meropenem on sepsis-related organ dysfunction in patients with severe sepsis.
  • JAMA November 23, 2011

    Figure: Scientists Seek Antibiotic Adjuvants

    When given as a part of a combination therapy, the antidiarrheal drug loperamide may boost the effectiveness of the antibiotic minocycline, preliminary data suggest.
  • JAMA November 23, 2011

    Figure: Scientists Seek Antibiotic Adjuvants

    When given as a part of a combination therapy, the antidiarrheal drug loperamide may boost the effectiveness of the antibiotic minocycline, preliminary data suggest.