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  • Uneven Progress in Preventing and Treating HIV Infections Worldwide

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2017; 317(7):687-687. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.0635
  • The Potential to Advance Health Care in the US Criminal Justice System

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2016; 316(4):387-388. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.7651

    This Viewpoint discusses potential opportunities to advance health care in the US criminal justice system based on recent developments.

  • Effect of Patient Navigation With or Without Financial Incentives on Viral Suppression Among Hospitalized Patients With HIV Infection and Substance Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2016; 316(2):156-170. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.8914

    This randomized clinical trial compares the effect of patient navigation (care coordination) with or without financial incentives with usual care on viral suppression and death among hospitalized patients with HIV infection and substance use.

  • Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults: 2016 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society–USA Panel

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    JAMA. 2016; 316(2):191-210. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.8900

    This statement from the International Antiviral Society–USA updates recommendations for the use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) to treat adults with established HIV infection and to prevent HIV infection among persons at risk of infection.

  • Condomless Sex With Virologically Suppressed HIV-Infected Individuals: How Safe Is It?

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2016; 316(2):149-151. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.5636
  • Sexual Activity Without Condoms and Risk of HIV Transmission in Serodifferent Couples When the HIV-Positive Partner Is Using Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

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    JAMA. 2016; 316(2):171-181. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.5148

    This cohort study describes the role of within-couple HIV transmission among serodifferent couples having condomless sex while the HIV-positive partner was using suppressive antiretroviral therapy.

  • Association of Medical Male Circumcision and Antiretroviral Therapy Scale-up With Community HIV Incidence in Rakai, Uganda

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    JAMA. 2016; 316(2):182-190. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.7292

    This community survey study describes trends in male medical circumcision vs use of antiretrovial therapy, and associations of each with HIV incidence before and after a program to increase uptake of circumcision and ART to prevent HIV.

  • An HIV Vaccine: Mapping Uncharted Territory

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2016; 316(2):143-144. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.7538

    In this Viewpoint, Anthony Fauci summarizes progress to date in efforts to develop an HIV vaccine that induces broadly neutralizing antibodies to neutralize the range of HIV variants that emerge from rapid mutations.

  • Genvoya: A New 4-Drug Combination for HIV

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2016; 316(2):215-216. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.5945

    This Medical Letter review summarizes a newly approved 4-drug combination comprising elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir for treatment of HIV infection in individuals older than 12 years.

  • Antiretroviral Preexposure Prophylaxis: Opportunities and Challenges for Primary Care Physicians

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2016; 315(9):867-868. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0318

    This Viewpoint urges greater involvement of primary care physicians in screening patients for risky sexual behaviors and prescribing preexposure prophylactic antiviral medication to those at risk of HIV infection.

  • Screening Yield of HIV Antigen/Antibody Combination and Pooled HIV RNA Testing for Acute HIV Infection in a High-Prevalence Population

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    JAMA. 2016; 315(7):682-690. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0286

    This study compares the ability of an HIV antigen/antibody combination assay to detect acute HIV infection vs pooled HIV RNA testing in patients with a negative result for the rapid HIV test.

  • JAMA February 16, 2016

    Figure 1: Flow of Specimens Screened for Acute HIV Infection With an HIV Ag/Ab Combination Assay (Index Test) and HIV-1 RNA Testing (Reference Standard Test)

    Ag indicates antigen; Ab, antibody; HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus 1. Brown boxes indicate specimens with complete HIV test results and included in the primary analysis.aAn additional individual HIV-1 RNA assay was performed if the pooled HIV-1 RNA testing had a positive result.bAcute HIV infection was diagnosed with (1) a reactive HIV Ag/Ab combination assay or detectable HIV RNA on pooled HIV RNA testing and (2) detectable HIV RNA on an individual HIV RNA test.
  • JAMA February 16, 2016

    Figure 2: Flow of Additional HIV Testing on Specimens With a Reactive Rapid HIV Test Result

    Ag indicates antigen; Ab, antibody.aThese specimens were reactive on HIV-1 RNA testing confirming HIV infection.bThese specimens had a negative result with additional testing.
  • JAMA November 3, 2015

    Figure: Flow of HIV-Infected Children Randomized to Continue a Ritonavir-Boosted Lopinavir–Based Regimen or Switch to an Efavirenz-Based Regimen

    HIV indicates human immunodeficiency virus. “Transferred” indicates children whose care was transferred to other health care facilities because of relocation.aBecause of an administrative error, this patient was not switched to efavirenz and continued taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir all the way through the study but was analyzed per intention to treat in the efavirenz group.
  • Efavirenz-Based Antiretroviral Therapy Among Nevirapine-Exposed HIV-Infected Children in South Africa: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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    JAMA. 2015; 314(17):1808-1817. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.13631

    This randomized trial compares risks of viral rebound and viral failure with continuation of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir vs switching to efavirenz among children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection exposed to nevirapine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission who had initial viral suppression with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir–based therapy.

  • Sexual Violence and HIV Infection Associated With Adolescent vs Adult Entry Into the Sex Trade in Mexico

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    JAMA. 2015; 314(5):516-518. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.7376

    This sampling of sex workers in Mexico investigated entry in the sex trade as an adolescent vs as an adult and risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection and sexual violence.

  • JAMA April 21, 2015

    Figure: Maternal ART Coverage Goal and Currently Achieved ART Coverage in PMTCT High-Burden Countries

    ART indicates antiretroviral therapy; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; PMTCT, perinatal mother-to-child transmission; WHO, World Health Organization. Because of issues of access and adherence, the maternal ART coverage goal to achieve less than 5% PMTCT (dotted line) well exceeds the currently achieved ART coverage. With this cascade of maternal ART coverage for prevention of PMTCT, 16% of HIV-1–infected women from PMTCT high-burden countries continue to transmit HIV-1 to their infants. Data sources are the UNAIDS 2014 Progress Report on the Global Plan Towards the Elimination of New HIV Infection Among Children by 2015 and Keeping Their Mothers Alive and the WHO Global Update on the Health Sector Response to HIV, 2014.aPostpartum adherence was estimated using Malawi national PMTCT data for the fourth quarter of 2013, as reported in the Global Update on the Health Sector Response to HIV, 2014.
  • Risk of HIV Infection Increases With an Injectable Hormonal Contraceptive

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2015; 313(11):1093-1093. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.2061
  • Treatment of Syphilis: A Systematic Review

    Abstract Full Text
    JAMA. 2014; 312(18):1905-1917. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.13259

    This Review article concludes that the mainstay of syphilis treatment is parenteral penicillin G despite the relatively modest clinical trial data that support its use.

  • Trends in Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States, 2002-2011

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    JAMA. 2014; 312(4):432-434. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.8534