Explore the latest in research, methods, and statistics, including topics in clinical research infrastructure, design, conduct, and analysis.
This cohort study of administrative data from the Veterans Affairs Health Care System assesses the applicability of using the Medicare Advantage risk adjustment system version 21 for comparing Veterans Affairs hospitals with nonfederal hospitals.
This JAMA Guide to Statistics and Methods discusses the use, limitations, and interpretation of Bayesian hierarchical modeling, a statistical procedure that integrates information across multiple levels and uses prior information about likely treatment effects and their variability to estimate true vs random treatment effects.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examines randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of modern cancer drugs in the adjuvant setting to determine the incidence of severe adverse events reported in placebo groups.
This secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative randomized clinical trial and observational study cohort investigates the association between body fat and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women with normal body mass index.
This Special Communication describes a Bayesian reanalysis of a randomized clinical trial comparing the effects on mortality of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) vs conventional mechanical ventilation among patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, performed because of divergence between the clinical vs statistical significance of the trial’s findings and continued controversy over the benefit of ECMO.
This narrative review presents an approach to incorporating clinical risk prediction models in psychiatry, highlights challenges, and provides recommendations to improve understanding of prognosis in psychiatry.
This systematic review and quantitative analysis evaluates progression-free survival as a surrogate outcome for health-related quality of life in oncology.
This study examines recent original research articles in leading oncology journals to evaluate the use of statements about the trend of a P value toward significance to describe statistically nonsignificant results.
This Patient Page defines the some of the important terms and techniques that cancer researchers use to measure and report their findings.
In this Viewpoint, Hu and Willett survey the accomplishments and future directions of nutritional epidemiology research, arguing for a multidisciplinary approach across the lifecycle using new digital technologies as the best means to address existing uncertainties about optimal diet and nutrition.
This Viewpoint discusses widespread perceptions of vulnerability and risk that discourage enrollment of pregnant women in clinical trials, and calls for actionable guidelines to overcome those perceptions and eliminate barriers to their participation.
This Viewpoint provides thoughts on best practices for the implementation of user-center designs in health care.
This double-blind, randomized clinical noninferiority trial evaluates whether placebo treatment is significantly inferior to 3 days of oral amoxicillin treatment in HIV-uninfected children aged 2 to 59 months with nonsevere fast-breathing pneumonia in a malaria-endemic region of Malawi, Africa.
This pooled analysis of individual patient data investigates the association of body mass index with subsequent breast cancer risk, in particular by age, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics, in premenopausal women.
This post hoc analysis of the Vitamin D Assessment randomized clinical trial assesses the association of monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation vs placebo on cancer risk among New Zealand adults.
This narrative review explains the importance of the Fragility Index score, a measure of the robustness of randomized clinical trials, and describes the relative robustness of articles in surgery, general medicine, and cardiology.
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