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August 1922

THE DETERMINATION OF SODIUM, POTASSIUM, CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM IN THE BLOOD AND SPINAL FLUID OF PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM MANICDEPRESSIVE INSANITY

Arch NeurPsych. 1922;8(2):179-183. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1922.02190140070006
Abstract

Ringer in a number of papers beginning in 1880 showed the necessity for a proper balance between sodium, potassium and calcium in the fluids of organisms. Loeb, in 1889, showed that electrolytes cause twitching of the muscles while nonelectrolytes have no such effect, and in many subsequent papers pointed out the necessity of physiologically balanced solutions. Howell, in 1898, emphasized the importance of calcium in relation to various activities of the organism. Weed and Wegeforth,1 while studying the effects of irrigation of the subarachnoidian space in cats, noted a peculiar psychic disturbance following the use of sodium chlorid solution. They first used a modified Ringer's solution made up of sodium chlorid, 0.9 per cent.; calcium chlorid, 0.024 per cent., and potassium chlorid, 0.042 per cent. The subarachnoidian space from the vertex area or the cysterna magna to the lumbar area was irrigated with this fluid. The time required was

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