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A new point of view is expressed in this book with regard to cerebral localization, the arterial distribution being taken as the foundation. In reality it is a resuscitation of a view held by Charcot, and it represents one of the last pieces of work inspired by Charles Foix, whose description of the syndromes of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries has become classic. Since cerebral lesions are so frequently vascular in origin, it is curious that clinical anatomy has not been more frequently approached from this aspect. Although the syndromes of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries are fairly fixed, those of the sylvian artery are extremely numerous and often complex, depending as they do on variations not only in the artery itself with its branches, but also on the location of the obstruction. There are certain differences from case to case in the ramifications of the sylvian artery