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November 1929

THE EVOLUTION OF SYMBOLS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Arch NeurPsych. 1929;22(5):865-872. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1929.02220050003001
Abstract

To attempt to approach the problem of the nature of the mind, and especially that part of it that is known as consciousness, may well seem to be "rushing in where angels fear to tread," but many have made and are making the attempt from many points of view, varying in countless gradations up or down the scale from deism to neural or even glandular physiology. The older academic psychology stressed consciousness until it became impossible to connect it with any bodily or organic function. Behaviorism eliminated this troublesome concept by the simple process of denying its existence, and, freed thus from this incubus, has made many valuable contributions to animal and human psychology. Behavioristic psychology is definitely in line with the rest of body physiology, especially neurophysiology, but still it leaves just that gap which cannot be filled with denial. Psychoanalysis clarified our understanding greatly by conceiving of the

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