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The author has brought together in this book his personal observations in many cases of epidemic encephalitis in Argentina, which he discusses in the light of recent progress on the knowledge of this disease. The first chapter is devoted to a study of the occurrence of the disease in Argentina. Since the epidemics of 1919, 1920 and 1921, hundreds of cases have sporadically appeared in diverse provinces and, as in other countries, in many instances the possibility of direct contagion had to be excluded. In Argentina there has never been a focus from which the disease has spread. The latter is more prevalent during the winter months (from May to August in the southern hemisphere), the highest number of cases occurring in June and July. The disease attacked chiefly subjects from 10 to 40 years of age. A discussion of the bacteriology of the disease ends this chapter.