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The two leading speakers in the discussion at the Vienna meeting of the German Psychiatric Association (Sept. 13, 1927) in this book present in detail their reports to distinguish between the process symptoms and the defect symptoms in the mental symptomatology of schizophrenia. It would seem desirable to summarize the reasoning and the presentation of facts of Berze and Gruhle, as good examples of the wrestling with probably the most interesting and far-reaching problem of psychiatry.
Berze aims to make groups of cases, and of phases in each case. He distinguishes the concepts of psychotic fundamental disorder ("phenomenologically not demonstrable"), the primary symptoms (the immediate psychic expressions of an organic process not continually obvious) and the secondary symptoms (secondary adaptations that really furnish the general picture). Add to this the distinction of schizoid and schizophrenic reaction types and one sees what a tangle of "basic" concepts he starts out with.
Psychologie der Schizophrenie.. Arch NeurPsych. 1930;24(4):874–879. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1930.02220160210023
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