Long before psychotherapy had come into its own as a medical specialty (and I am not sure that it is commonly regarded as such), the internist was already recognizing that certain diseases, along with the physical symptoms present, showed concomitantly a large "nervous" element. It was insisted that the physical basis was primary, while the so-called nervous component was assigned a sort of a secondary importance, perhaps a consequence of the physical. However, in spite of the application of all sorts of remedial measures, these conditions would somehow fail to respond to any physical therapy so far devised. Recent researches and clinical studies increasingly begin to support the view that purely psychic conditions are capable of producing physical symptoms that cannot be removed or cured by physical, medicinal or mechanical remedies, but only by psychic means directed at the original source of difficulties. Many visual disturbances are neurotically conditioned—the patient
KARPMAN B. ANXIETY NEUROSES: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE WORK OF WILHELM STEKEL. Arch NeurPsych. 1931;26(6):1257–1299. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1931.02230120140010
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