Encephalitic complications occurring in measles are well known, and recently their occurrence has been the subject of careful clinical and histologic investigation.1
There is a consensus among the various authors as to the histologic picture that characterizes the so-called "measles encephalitis." We ourselves have reported six cases of this condition in which the lesions consisted especially in a perivascular proliferation formed largely by microglial elements. The perivascular proliferation is scattered throughout the cortex and white substance, but involves the latter more severely (fig. 1). Under a low power magnification, the perivascular proliferation gives an impression of a perivascular infiltration, but a careful study of the elements forming the proliferation excludes the existence of hematogenous elements, while the use of appropriate specific stains discloses beyond any doubt the microglial nature of the cells. It is then clearly a proliferation that has nothing in common with the usual infiltration found in
FERRARO A, SCHEFFER IH. TOXIC ENCEPHALOPATHY IN MEASLES. Arch NeurPsych. 1932;27(5):1209–1225. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1932.02230170225007
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