The problem of muscle tone is intimately associated with the question of the dual innervation of the striated muscle fiber. Many authorities, notably Sherrington1 and the English school of physiologists, regard the cerebrospinal innervation as the sole factor in muscle tone. Other investigators confirm the views of Mosso,2 Grützner,3 Bottazzi4 and de Boer5 that tonus is a function of sarcoplasm under the control of the sympathetic nervous system. This theory implies the existence of both a contractile and a plastic tonus, the latter having the nature of a Sperr or fixation mechanism. Among the investigators who favor this point of view may be mentioned von Uexküll,6 Ken Kuré,7 Langelaan8 and Hunter.9
Spiegel,10 while recognizing a static and kinetic innervation, did not declare himself in favor of separate neuromuscular systems. He regarded these two forms of innervation as of similar nature,
HUNT JR. RELATION OF THE STATIC AND KINETIC SYSTEMS TO MUSCLE TONE. Arch NeurPsych. 1932;28(3):629–648. doi:https://doi.org/10.1001/archneurpsyc.1932.02240030149008
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