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Ludwig reviews the findings with regard to all bodily asymmetries. From the study of asymmetries of the upper extremities, he concludes that in three fourths of the cases the right is longer, larger or stronger, and usually all three. Asymmetries of the lower extremities are less frequently studied, because the problem of handedness is not directly involved. The differences in the lengths of the extremities are slighter in apes.
Ludwig defines handedness as an innate disposition to carry through finely coordinated movements more easily, more rapidly and more effectively with one hand than with the other. As a consequence of this disposition, the favorite hand is used more intensively in daily life than the other hand, and in all natural behavior which requires the cooperation of two hands it takes over the more difficult part. From various studies Ludwig estimates the frequency of left-handedness in males as from 4 to