Since the time of Dandy's initial description of ventriculography1 and encephalography2 there have been many publications of the ventriculographic findings in abnormal cases.3 But surprisingly little attention has been paid to the true anatomic significance of the gas shadows of the normal ventricle. This oversight has resulted in glaring mistakes in ventriculographic interpretation, published unwittingly. It has resulted further in diagnostic errors (usually unpublished) which were due not to the true limitations of the method but rather to a lack of knowledge of the basic principles of interpretation.
In order to pass judgment on departures from normal, it is best first to analyze normal ventricular shadows. To this end we have prepared a bronze model of the human cerebral ventricles in a partial cast of the skull4 (fig. 1). This model was constructed by one of us (A. T.) after an analysis of injection casts of
TORKILDSEN A, PENFIELD W. VENTRICULOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION. Arch NeurPsych. 1933;30(5):1011–1024. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1933.02240170063004
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