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August 1936


Author Affiliations


From the Phipps Psychiatric Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Arch NeurPsych. 1936;36(2):342-361. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1936.02260080114007

The study of emotional reactions and their relation to physiologic functions is not yet far advanced. To speak merely of emotions and the associated bodily symptoms is much too general. One must study the various emotions separately and in this way become able to understand the more complex emotional reactions in which a number of emotions are present at the same time. There are many groupings of emotions which frequently lead to undesirable simplifications, as, for example, the attempt to consider fear merely a secondary elaboration of anxiety or to group emotions around the two antagonists, pleasure and nonpleasure. It is best to single out the most outstanding emotions which one observes under normal as well as pathologic conditions and to study them systematically. Situations must be created which have definite experimental value and which can be repeated. It is true that one cannot set up quite fully controlled conditions,

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