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November 1936

AGGRESSIVE-SUBMISSIVE BEHAVIOR AND THE FRÖHLICH SYNDROME

Arch NeurPsych. 1936;36(5):991-1020. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1936.02260110076007
Abstract

In attempting to correlate physical findings with personality traits, I have been impressed with the frequent occurrence of behavior problems characterized as submissive in children with the so-called Fröhlich syndrome. This impression was thought worthy of investigation, especially since in a behavior clinic for children problems in aggressive behavior are the rule.

The difficulty in correlating physical make-up and personality starts with the problem of clearly determining the physical signs and the personality traits to be measured. The difficulty is considered greater for the traits than for the physical signs. If observations on the latter include quantitative data and evidence of the presence or absence of any given item (for example, body weight and measurements, presence or absence of pubic hair, etc.) the differentiation is clearcut. When the physical signs are descriptive, their value as research data depends on a number of variable factors, including the examiner's experience, accuracy of

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