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April 1937


Author Affiliations


From the Payne Whitney Psychiatric Clinic, the New York Hospital.

Arch NeurPsych. 1937;37(4):805-816. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1937.02260160105011

Negativism is a well established psychopathologic reaction signifying the negativistic behavior of patients with schizophrenia to stimuli from the environment (outer negativism), as well as to impulses from within (inner negativism). It was first described by Kahlbaum as the motor negativism which is seen in patients with catatonia. Later, especially through the work of Bleuler, this term was expanded to cover all negativistic reactions associated with schizophrenia. Bleuler1 agreed with Kraepelin that no intellectually understood motives play a part and stressed the "instinctive" or "impulsive" character. He therefore denied that affective factors play a dominant rôle. He formulated negativism as a secondary schizophrenic symptom in which ambivalency and ambitendency, the schizophrenic splitting, lack of clearness in thinking and imperfect logical thinking, autism and negative suggestibility are important dynamic factors. This formulation is generally accepted, except by the remaining school of Wernicke (Kleist2) and some Italian authors who seek

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