In the course of experiments with "schizophrenic" patients designed to determine their response to the administration of epinephrine, some of the observations in the control series of experiments, in which epinephrine was not used, suggested deviation from the normal in the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.
The patients were kept in a basal state and breathed through a mouth piece into a Tissot spirometer for three and one-half hours, i. e., for fourteen periods of fifteen minutes each. During each period a sample of expired air was taken, its oxygen and carbon dioxide contents were determined and the volume of ventilation recorded; during each period blood was drawn from the finger, and the dextrose and lactate contents were estimated; a sample of arterial blood was taken at the beginning, the middle and the conclusion of the experiment, and the oxygen and carbon dioxide contents and capacities were measured. The pulse
Thompson JW, Aste-Salazar JH. KETONEMIA IN CASES OF MENTAL DISORDERS. Arch NeurPsych. 1939;41(2):375–376. doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1939.02270140161014